Datong City locates in the northeast side of the Shanxi Province and in the loess plateau in the northeast edge. The north boundary is outside the Great Wall and is adjacent to Feng Town and Liangcheng Country of Inner Mongolia in west, connects with Suzhou City and the region of Xizhou of the province in west and south, connects with Yangyuan, Laiyuan and Wei Country of Hebei Province in east. The city history of Datong is long, the geography is hazardous, it is the gate in the north of Shanxi and the screen of Beijing, and it is the necessary road to Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Hebei for shortcut. The strategic position is very important, it is called the ancient battlefield, once it was one capital, two temporary capitals and the key figure of four dynasties. It locates at the crossing of the Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Hebei and is the famous coal capital in China. The niche condition is more superior, the transportation correspondence is more convenient, the mineral resources is very abundant, the good reputation of the tour resources is well known in China and Foreign, the industry foundation is stronger. The total area of national territory of the whole city is 14112.56 square kilometers, the average elevation is between 700 meters and 1400 meters, the highest peak is Huangyangjian which is the main peak of the Liuleng Mountain in Yanggao Country and is 2420 meters, the lowest place is the Ranzhuanghe in Lingqiu Country which is 558 meters, the elevation of downtown is 1000 meters. The inshore geography and type are complications and diverse, containing mountainous country, mound, basin, land and river. The ground mountain area and the mound area have 79% of the total area. The mountains in the northwest belong to ranges of Yin and Lvliang, mainly having Shuang Mountain, Erlang Mountain, Yunmen Mountain, Cailiang Mountain etc. The mountains in the southeast belong to ranges of Taihang, mainly having Heng Mountain, Taibai Mountain, Liuleng Mountain etc. The general elevation of whole city is between 1000 meters and 1500 meters, Sanggan River intersects the whole city from the southwest toward northeast, becoming the surroundings high, in the center low, two mountains clip one a basin of slot. In addition to Sanggan River, there are main Yu River, Nanyang River, Huliu River, Tang River of the water system of Hai River and Changtou River of the water system of Huanghe River. The total population of the whole city is 2,848,000 people; the agriculture population has about 60% or so. There are minorities in the city such as Mongol nationality, Man nationality, Hui nationality, Miao nationality, Chaoxian nationality, Tibetan etc. The population of Han nationality has 99.6%.
Datong City belongs to the continental monsoon climate, it is endless, cold and dry in winter, brief, warm and rainy in summer, cool in spring and autumn, the difference in temperature is great. The average temperature of year is 5.5 ?, the extreme highest air temperature is 37.7?, the extreme lowest air temperature is -29.1 ?. The average rainfall of year is 400 millimeters.
The land of Datong is vast, the main farm crops contain corn, rice, You wheat, spring wheat, Shuzi, potatoes, linseed, the day lily, Huangshi, sugar beet, sunflower and vegetable, melons and fruits...etc.
The mineral resources in Datong are abundant; it is called the famous coal country in China. The capacity of coal is great, the quantity is good, the hot value is high, the total capacity which has already been explored amounts to 37,690,000,000 tons, it is the important high-quality motive coal base to produce in our country. The inshore underground minerals still have the iron, copper, aluminum, zinc, phosphorus and limestone, mica, graphite, marble, granite ...etc.
The characteristics of the city
Datong was the place of the political power of Beiwei started. The Yungang Stone Cave and Xuankong Temple which are well-known in China and abroad was built up in that time. The Liao Dynasty ans Jin Dynasty emphasized the Buddhism, built up the famous and huge temples, which are Huayan Temple, Sanhua Temple, the wood tower of Ying Country etc. The five religions were booming in Yuan Dynasty, Qiu Chuji built up 482 Buddhism temples, we can see that they were booming. In 1285, 40 thousand monks gathered in Puen Temple in Xijing and held a meeting for 7 days and 7 nights, the condition was very great. There were also more than 100 temples and more than 200 monks and nuns in Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. Every 1st and 15th of month, the whole city was full of incenses, the bells and drums were noisy, it looked like a Buddha country. There are more than 20 thousand ancient buildings, ancient tombs and ancient ruins in Datong. More than 60 of them are the cultural object protection units of national-class or province-class. The more famous things mainly have Yungang Stone Cave which was built up in the period of the Wencheng Emperor of Beiwei, Shang and Xia Huayan Temple which is the only wood building in Liao Dynasty, Nine Dragon Wall, the ruin of Xujiayao people in Yanggao, Heng Mountain, Xuankong Temple, the brick tower in Yuanjue Temple in Hunyuan, Ciyun Temple in Tian Town, Jueshan Temple in Lingqiu etc. In addition, the Yonggu Emperor's Mausoleum of Feng Queen Mother of Beiwei, Xugongwanniantang of Xiaowen Emperor, the ruin of the Baideng War in Han Dynasty, Guanyin Hall, the ancient Great Wall are all extremely precious cultural inheritances. At the same time the coal resource in Datong is abundant, it is the important energy base in whole country.
The present condition of city
Datong is important energy industry city in Chinese north. In 1996, the GDP was 145.4,400,000,000 Yuan. Have already become to take coal and electric power industry as the base, including a well-found industry system of building materials, metallurgy, machine, chemical engineering, medicine, light spin, porcelain and ceramics, transportation, the automobile manufacturing, the agriculture by-product to process etc. The main products which are more than 2000 kinds are raw coal, electric power, motorcycle, diesel engine, automobile, metal alloy of iron, resin etc. the main profession is 32, more than 150 doors, the excellent products are more than 300 kinds. The agriculture formation is with plant industry, livestock husbandry, forestry and four economic structure and form of integral whole of the village business enterprises. In 1996, the total yield of food was 800054 tons. The meat, egg and milk are ample. The rate of forest overlays of the whole city attained 23%. In 1996, the total amount of the post and tale business completed of the whole city was 22,800,000,000 Yuan, the total amount of telephone in the whole city was 170,000, the rate of the telephone universality is 7.37 sets every 100 people, the capacity of the exchange machine was 180,000 Men, the capacity of the long distance exchange machine amounted to 5000 Luduan. The whole city contained more than 35000 business net orders, 153,000 employees; the total amount of the social consumer goods was 56,500,000,000 in 1996. More than 100 markets have been built up, they gather trade, steel material, timber, clothing, vegetable, food, small merchandise, automobile, discard the steel...etc. and cover more than 3000000 square meters. In 1996, the whole city completed the fixed capital to invest 244,300,000,000 Yuan, the capital construction was invested 83,200,000,000 Yuan to push forward the city public facilities construction and improve the city environment. Take the stratagem about the science let city success, more than 2000 science and technology persons contract for 247 agriculture techniques to offend the pass. The whole city contain 4 colleges, 12 trade schools and 36 professional high schools, 294 common high school which have 13,630,000 students in the school, 2442 primary schools which have 349,000 students, 367 kindergartens which have 68000 students, 18 professional art perform groups which have more than 1000 employees, 8 profession perform places, 11 cultural buildings of the city, county, or area, 13 libraries, 1 art building, 1 museum, 112 county country culture stations, 522 health organizations, 110,000 sickbeds, 13,400 professional health technical persons.