Travel guide of Datong
>>The history and beauty spots of the Great Wall neighborhood
Shanxi Province belonged to Jin Country in the period of Chunqiu and Zhanguo. It had already belonged to place for the war in the past; it was always the place where Han Nationality of Huanghe River valley took place the conflicts with the nomad in Mongolia. When Beijing became gradually the national political center, Shanxi locates the position which is the outside screen of Beijing, Taihang Mountain carried to rise to protect the responsibility of the capital city too. Therefore, Shanxi which was poor and unproductive transportation was the important precincts on the military national defense. Possibility positive as it does, several soldiers come from Shanxi. Chinese historical famous general, the ancestral homeof them almost leaded the half from Shanxi, such as Lian Po and Li Mu who were in the period of Zhanguo, Wei Qing, Huo Qubing and Li Guang who were in Han Dynasty, Guan Yu and Zhang Liao who were in the period of Three Countries, Yuchi Gong and Xue Rengui in Tang Dynasty, Yang Ye, his sons, grandsons and Di Qing in Song Dynasty, their names are widely known.
The famous generals flow out now, have the important relation with the Great Wall. The Great Wall is the building of the property defends the military, natural with wars knot bottom not the good luck that solve, see the outside Great Wall of Shanxi today, impressively is the province boundary with Inner Mongolia, this boundary expressed the hordes of the agriculture race and nomad, as long as turn over the map of the Ming Dynasty, you can see this outside Great Wall basically was a national boundary.
The rise and fall of this sect of Great Wall represents the 300 years' rise and fall of Ming Dynasty. At the early year of Ming Dynasty, pay for the sake of the resist Mongolia, the soldiers of Ming Dynasty attacked many times, also followed the battlefront to construct the Great Wall. The important districts of the body of Great Wall all were made of soil and bine up with stones, placed the Ditai, forts and passes to be as fieldings, at the same time, followed the side establishment long-term a military service system, made them defend the borde area from generation to generation. After Mingchengzu moved the capital to Beijing, many emperors of Ming Dynasty added to build the inside Great Wall to be as the second defense line in order to protect themselves safety.
Yanmen Pass had a long time, the mountains here pull out, the both sides mountain peak confrontation, the wild gooses fly between them, as a result it got its name. In the past, if the foreign tribe in the north wanted to invade the China, all of them would go into Yanmen from Yunzhong, go to Taiyuan and threat Chang-an or the side offend Beijing, so in the past kings all valued it here very much, sent the large force to garrison a neighborhood of Yanmen.
Yanmen Pass contains the new Guangwu City and the old Guangwu City, both of them were built up in Ming Dynasty and are very hard. Go southward from the old Guangwu City, it is the old address of Yanmen Pass in Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. In the period of Song Dynasty, it was the ground that Song Dynasty necessarily contended with Liao Dynasty. The famous story of Tang Ye and his sons and grandsons in Song Dynasty took the place as stage. If come to Yanmen, you had better go to the Lutijian Village in Zaolin Town of Dai Country, because the ancestral temple of Yang was established at this place and his sons and grandsons live here.
Go through Yanmen Pass, the next pass would be Pingxing Pass. Pingxing Pass is in the lap of a mountain which looks like a bottle and is in south of Heng Mountain. It controls the east corner of the river valley of Lvtuo. It was called Pinxingzai in Song Dynasty, people constructed the Great Wall, Guan city and war signal set etc. here in Ming Dynasty. Pingxing Pass is the main transportation route, because of crossing this pass, leading to Lingqiu County, you can enter in Hebei then, approach Beijing. According to the survive pass door of today, you may think it permitted the list to ride to pass only at that time.
The Great Wall stretches to rise and fall from the fortress two sides, each with the Taihang Mountain and Heng Mountain are the Great Wall to connect. In addition, China once fought the first beautiful victorious battle in Pingxing Pass in the period of war of fighting against Japan, hence it made the reputation of Pingxing Pass more famous.
Leave Pingxing Pass, you will arrive at the last station of this trip.
Niangzi Pass is in the Pingding Country which is in between Shanxi Province and Hebei Province, is the famous pass of the Great Wall, is also a throat that leads to Beijing, and is called the ninth pass in the world. The city of today was built up in the period of Jiajing in Ming Dynasty, being kept better.
As for the name of source of Niangzi Pass, it is said that it had the relevant with Pingyang Princess in Tang Dynasty. She followed Li Yuan who was his father to fight for many years, practiced for the whole body skill in martial arts, owned more than 70,000 soldiers, there were a lot of female soldiers in them, they were called the team of women in that time. She once garrisoned here, refused to the enemy to encroach for many times; the posterity guarded the pass to change to be called Niangzi Pass then. Today, there is one street in the pass, the granite spreads the way, thou of ancient color and joss-stick, the gate tower inside the pass still can be visited. The boundless long road that it travels of the Great Wall in Shanxi, arriving at the Niangzi Pass you can end then.
Heng Mountain locates in the southeast of Datong City, the main peak locates in the Hunyuan Country. Heng Mountain is alleged to have 108 peaks, they continue long 150 kilometers from east to west, it connects with Yanmen Pass in west, acrosses the Taihang Mountain in east, depends on Shanxi in South, faces to Yunzhou and Daizhou in north, vast, the horizontal fill up, tower aloft, the vehemence is impressive-looking. The main peak of Heng Mountain is Xuanwu Peak, which is in the Hunyuan Country. Its elevation is 2016.8 meters and is the highest one in the five mountains.
Heng Mountain is called Ziyue, Hengzong, Chang Mountain, drived for" a north pillar"," fill the famous mountain extremely". It is rumored that 4,000 years ago, Shun made imperial to visit everywhere, arrived at the Heng Mountain in north, saw the mountain power male insurance here, hence called Heng Mountain as" North Yue ". The Qin Shi huang was ruling, calling the 12 famous mountains of world, the Heng Mountain was called for the second mountain in the world. The Qin Shi huang once came to visit in Heng Mountain, the Hanwu Emperor also once came to Heng Mountain toward and did obeisance, the kings of Tang Dynasty wrote the texts to praise to the Heng Mountain, an emperor of Sung Dynasty saw to Heng Mountain summit of hill. In the North Wei, Tuobashou climbed the Tianding peak in Heng Mountain. The emperors of Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty also send the emissary to Heng Mountain to offer sacrifices to, the famous writers, wits and personality who were Li Bai, Jia Dao, Yuan Haowen and Xu Xiake all visited the Heng Mountain and divine spot, leaving to the poems, painting of Heng Mountain.
In the early year of West Han, the temples were built up in the Heng Mountain, already having the history of more than 2,000 years up to the present. The main temple in the Flying Rock Hole, started to be set up in North Wei, three reconstructions of Tang, Jin, Yuan. In Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty, building in Heng Mountain standed up like a forest, lofty greatly of the ancestral temple balcony, have" nine stations and pavilions, four ancestral temples and three temples,12 temples, eight holes and seven temples" to call. Heng Mountain was takenas the place that is the religion of Taoism activity; it is already a long time. Zhang Guolao who is one of the eight holes fairies of legendary live as recluse in Heng Mountain.
The natural view of Heng Mountain is very beautiful. There are thousands of peaks showing, the layer fold, the wall in the precipice sign, the strange hole hides, the clouds and mist curl up, the river flow, 100 birds contend, it contained 18 views in the past, now it still saves more than ten buildings such as the Zhao Palace, the Meeting Fairies Mansion, Nine Paradises Palace etc. In the past, many famous scholars all had description to Heng Mountains, the description of a proper" often hope the mountain, ascend the high north to visit" of Han Dynasty. Jia Dao of Tang Dynasty « North Yue Temple » has" the world contain five Yue, Heng Mountain lives in north, the rock fold ten thousand heavy, the strange is difficult to measure" to praise highly in the poem. Li Bai who was the more famous poet of Tang Dynasty then left the painting of "grand view" two words in Heng Mountain.
The main peak of Heng Mountain is divided into the east peak and the west peak, the east one is Tianling Peak, the west one is Cuiping Peak, the style has only, breaking the precipice green take, the layer is clear. The Gold Dragon Gorge is between Tianling Peak and Cuiping Peak, the canyon is profound, the crag side sign, the stone clip the blue sky, the narrowest place is less three measures. From thou the here is for the military the ground that contend for necessarily. In the period of North Wei, Daowu Emperor sent troops of a few myriad people, splitting the mountain to dig the way here according to guard, the conduct and actions entered the gate of back the China. In Sung Dynasty, Yang Ye and his sons decided the insurance here, resisting the foreign tribe to invade.
In the views of Heng Mountain, the Guolaoling, sister-in-law's rock of fruit, the Flying Rock Hole, the Revivification Hole, Hufengkou, the Dazi Gulf...etc., they are filled with the miraculous, also contain the beautiful absolute of China. Xuangensong, Zizhiyu and Tianku Well are also wonderful view in the natural views. The bitter and sweet well locates in the half waist of Heng Mountain, a well is juxtaposed, being separated one meter, and the fluid matter is different. One well water like sweet dew, sweet and fresh and cool, deep a few Chinese foots of well of water, take it not to the utmost, can be provided as myriad people to drink, Tangxuanzong granted the card of " Longquanguan". Another well water is bitter and astringent difficult to drink, become fresh and clear to check against.
The pines in Heng Mountain are one view of Heng Mountain. Four Great Pines, the roots of ancient pines hang in stone outside, grasp the rock tightly, stand erect, the carriage male, watching pines in the Hukou, or standing on the Danya, or pour to hang among the cliff, likes umbrella, wing, station, dragon, bridge, ten thousand squares of looks.
The temples in Heng Mountain, the Beiyu Temple is a main temple, still having the buildings of temples such as the bedchamber, Houtufengren Temple, Ziwei Temple, Officer's Station, Baihuguan, Longwang Temple, Lingguan Temple, Guandi Temple, Wencang Temple, Nainai Temple, Chunyang Temple, Bixia Temple etc. Xuankong Temple is the first spectacular sight in Heng Mountain.
Beiyue Temple was built up between 1501 and 1502, is the greatest one in Heng Mountain. It locates under the stone wall which is south of Tianling Peak that is the main peak of Heng Mountain. There are 103 stone stairses leading to the gate in the front of door. The door of Beiyue Temple contains " Zenyuanzhidian " four big words. There is the statue of Beiyuedadi in the Beiyue Temple.
Under the ex- gallery of Beiyue Temple, there are more than 20 imperial fiesta Heng mountain text stone tablet of Qing Dynasty, these inscriptions, as the history for studying Heng Mountain.
Xuankong Temple is another important view in the north Yue Heng mountain scenic area.
Xuankong Temple locates on the crag of Xiyan in Jinlong Gorge which is far 5 kilometers to south of Hunyuan Country at the foot of Heng Mountain. The temple was established about in 471A.D.-523 A.D., the existing building is keepsake in Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. Xuankong Temple faces to east by west, if choiceness, the interesting and novel and extremely keen jade hang on a huge screen. The south north, There are three summit of hill dangerous buildings to shoot high up, confrontation but sign, from low rise toward high three layers, leave the ground more than 100 Chinese foots, attach in the cliff, three wreath galleries round to embrace. Six palaces and pavilions cross mutually, fly a plank way to connect with each other, high and low and wrong fall, the wood system stairs communication, return to turns and twists, conceiving outline the layout too subtle to be described. The whole temple face falsely but solid, dangerous but safe, solid win to living , on sow in can not realize strange in local and other templates insurance the feeling holds tight the visitors' curiosity reason tightly.
There are many statues in Xuankong Temple, it has 78, and some of them are made of cooper, iron casting, clay figure, and stone carving. The clay figures in the Three Saint Palace have charms of Tang Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, the Sakya, Weituo, Tiannv, the Ananda body are plentiful and full, the countenance is moving, the fairy maiden is graceful, the Weituo is martial, the Ananda is devout, the each breeze is colourful. In the Three Jiao Palace, Gautama, Lao Tze, Confucius three religions the confluence, reside one room, bear pondering about totally, the first ancestor is together the hall, being rated as an anecdotes of the Chinese religious history.
In the Xuankong Temple, there are Zhao Palace, the Meeting Fairies Mansion, Bixia Temple, Chunyang Temple, balcony station, bedchamber, doll up the building, the imperial stone tablet station etc.
>>Yungang Stone Cave
Yungang Stone Cave locates in Nanluan of Wuzhou Mountain in the west downtown of Datong, the stone cave depends on the mountain to open and dig, it continues long one kilometer from east to west. The main existing holes have 45, the statues are about more than 51,000, it is one of the biggest ancient stone caves of our country. According to the cultural heritage, Tanyao who was the famous monk in North Wei manage to open and dig five stone caves, which are now seriated number the 16th hole to the 20th hole, they were at that time opened to dig at the earliest stage and so-called" Tanyao Five Holes ". Other main holes also were finished mostly in North Wei, which is 1,500 years apart from to now.
The history of Yungang Stone Cave is long, the scale is great, the contents are abundant, the carvings are fine, and it is called the miracle of the Chinese art history. In the stone caves, there are various persons images of each difference of expression, such as Buddha, Bodhisattva, pupils and Hufazhutian etc., the imitate wood buildings whose style is ancient, system is diversely; the relieves of Buddha has outstanding topic and the knife methods are familiar, Have the rich heavy composition, beautiful exquisite of the adornment kind; Still have the ancient musical instrument carvings in our country, such as Konghou, Xiao, Bili and pipa etc., they are abundant and colorful, feast for the eyes.
At the technical skill of carving, they inherited and developed the excellent tradition of art in Qin and Han in our country, and then absorbed and blended the beneficial composition of art of Jianluo, created the art objects that have the special style and left an important page in the carving history of our country. Yungang Stone Cave not only is the important image data today which we understand and study the ancient history, carve, construct, music and religion and faith etc. of our country, but also is the real object substantial evidence which we trace back to the Chinese and foreign cultural interaction and friendly come-and-go of people in ancient times. Now, Yungang Stone Cave has become the important place of the local people of different walks of life to visit tour, also is the tour divine spot of international friends look forward to.
Huayan Temple locates at southwest corner inside Datong City, is the existing biggest scale and very well preserves building of Liao Dynasty and Jin Dynasty in our country, is the national point cultural object protection unit. It was built according to the Huayanjing which is the sutra of Buddhism, so its name is Huayan Temple. It includes the Shang Huayan Temple, Xia Huayan Temple and Haihui Palace, Haihui Palace was pulled down in the early years of Liberation they built the school, so it only saved the part of palace base.
Now, the Shang Huayan Temple and Xia Huayan Temple each open the gate of their temple, each take one palace as the center, the Shang Huayan Temple takes the Daxiongbao Palace as principle, which was built up in Liao Dynasty, Xia Huayan Temple takes the Bojiajiaocang Palace as principle, which was built up in Liao Dynasty. Experienced the battle fire of every generation, two palaces all were rebuilt. Shang Huayan Temple is divided into the front yard and the back yard; the front yard contains the gate of temple, gallery, the hall of Reading Sutra, Yunshi Hall, two sides have inside the circle outside four the ways pass by door, meaning the religious sect of Huayan is wide, handling affairs the exquisite implied meaning. After climbing the granite step, follow the platform in the big palace, go through the wood system ornamental archway, have eight corners of an iron casting treasure right against the face, which has hexangular drill the clock building and drum building of two sides of left and right. The Daxiongbao Palace is the main building of the up temple, is existing one of the biggest palaces of Buddha. The ceiling inside the palace is constituted with 973 pieces of patterns with the dragon and phienxi, flowers, Sanskrit...etc.; Four walls are fuued with colourful paintings, which was draw by Dong An who was a painting worker in Qing Dynasty, the color of the paintings is fresh and gorgeous, rare in the country.
Xia Huayan Temple also is called Down Temple, locates in the southeast side of Shang Huayan Temple, the layout is the same as the Shang Huayan Temple, also is divided into the front yard and the back yard; the layout of Down Temple is free, the style of buildings also is more cheery, it is the unique wood building model in Liao Dynasty in our country now, having the value of science and research. Bojiacang Palace is the most precious in the existing buildings, which was built up in Liao Dynasty. Construct sincerely strict, the comparison is just right, the style is ancient, the carving of buildings is choiceness, and color meticulous, the smallpox well inside the palace and statue of Buddha are behind the mesh carry light on the mesh back make elegant. Heavy building the type wall that follows the palace seamy side wall to arrange the wood carving structure hides 38, bringing up the rear the wall greatly central because of opening up the window to rise rainbow type arched bridge that link or so wall's hide, soar to the skies to set up five paradises building on the bridge, good-looking and considerable. There are 29 statues of Liao Dynasty on the state in palace, the facial expression of Buddha and Bodhisattvas are vivid, the comparison is moderation, the carriage is natural, face plentiful are full, each difference of figure, which also are the bright pearl that our country carves the art treasure-house is, herein, grins by the Hezhangluochi Bodhisattva, the carving technical skill is more consummate, is called Venus of the east. The museum of Datong City is established in the front yard of the Down Temple, the exhibition articles are all various precious history cultural object and natural fossils.
Shanhua Temple is so called the South Temple, locates in the west side of Nanmenli in Datong, is the national point cultural object protection unit, started to set up in the period of Kaiyuan in Tang Dynasty, once was named to Kaiyuan Temple, Dapuen Temple. That temple covers greatly area, the courtyard is broad, and the buildings are grandiosity. The monastery sits in the north faces to south.
The Daxiongbao Palace is the biggest palace of the Shanhua Temple, having the platform in front, establishing the clock building and drum building in left side and right side. Five statues of Buddha are offered in the exact center of the palace, arranged one by one in order from the east to west: Eastern Asan Buddha, Southern Baosheng Buddha, Central Pilizhena, Western Amitabha, and North Weimiaowen Buddha. There are 24 statues which are placed on the brick pedestals of two sides inside the palace, each difference of expressions; the personality is fresh and clear. On the two walls of west and south inside the palace, contain the mural paintings from 25th to 47th year of Kangxi in Qing Dynasty, the contents all are the stories of Buddhism. The Three Saints Palace is the palace in the Shanhua Temples, set up in Jin Dynasty.there are three statues of Buddha which are Three Saints of Huayan Temple offered on stage of the right side. The medium one is Sskyamuni, the west one is Puxian Bodhisattva, the east one is Wenshu Bodhisattva, so this palace is called Three Saint Palace.
>>Nine Dragons Wall
It locates in the south side of the East Street in the downtown of Datong, built in the last year of Hongwu and is the shine wall of Zu Gui' mansion. Zu Gui was the 13th generation grandson of Zu Yuanzhang. 9 flying dragons distribute hormonally on the wall. The patterns of sun and moon are in two sides. The wall is put together by 426 pieces of specially made multicolored azure stone piece. 9 flying dragons are vehemence, flying high to jump certainly however wall up. The cleft of the dragons is filled with the patterns of mountain stones, the water grass, shining upon, setting off by contrast each other. The wall crest overlays the glazed tiles, crest descend is prop up by the azure stone arch. The bottom is the beard, which is high 2.09 meters; the stage is actually sumptuous, carving 41 sets patterns of two dragon drama the bead. The loins is constituted by 75 pieces of glazed tiles to the relief, there are various animal images, such as cow, horse, sheep, dog, deer, rabbit...etc., they are vivid, the wall is colorful.
>>The Guanyin Hall
The Guanyin Hall locates in a small low hill which is far 7.5 kilometers away from the west of the Datong City. It was built in Liao Dynasty, once was ruined in the battle fire. In 1122, the soldiers of Jin Dynasty offend to sink Datong, it was ruined in the battle fire again. The existing building was rebuilt up at the old address in 1651, add to fixed often up to now. That temple layout tightly packed. The theatrical stage, Guanyin Hall, Sanzhen Palace, the set palace and the pavilion row follow the medium stalk line from front to behind. The structure of gate is the type of Zhuanjuan, three words of the book" The Guanyin Hall " on a sum.